1. The object of the stylistic.
Problems of the stylistic research:
- the problem of style definition (belles-letters, scientific, neutral, low colloquial, archaic, pompous);
- the aesthetic function of language;
- expressive means in language;
- synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
- emotional coloring in language;
- the interrelation between language and thought;
- the individual manner of an author in making use of the language.
Stylistic of language and speech.
The difference between SL and SS:
- the SL analyses permanent stylistic properties;
- the SS studies stylistic properties which appear in a context.
Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistic:
- literary and linguistic stylistic (literary language, individual speech and poetic speech);
- lingvo-stylistic (functional styles);
- literary stylistic (various literary genres);
- comparative stylistic (study more than one language);
- functional stylistic (study functional styles);
- stylistic lexicology (study the semantic structure of the word);
- stylistic phonetic (study style-forming phonetic features);
- stylistic grammar;
Stylistic and other linguistic disciplines:
- S and semasiology (meaning of the words);
- S and onomasiology (theory of naminy);
- S and psycholinguistics (mechanisms of speech production);
- S and rhetoric (correctness of speech production).
S neutrality and S coloring.
The stylistically coloring is the knowledge where, in what particularly type of communication the unit is current. The majority of words are neutral. Stylistically colored words possess permanent stylistic connotations.
Stylistically neutral words will have only occasional stylistic connotations acquired in a certain context.
2. Lexical Stylistic Devices
Metaphor – is transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects. Both words possess at least one common semantic component.
Metonymy – is based on contiguity of objects or phenomena. Transference of names in metonymy proceeds from the fact that 2 objects have common grounds of existence in reality.
Irony – SD in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning. Irony doesn’t exist outside the context.
Zeugma - is a SD in which a word, usually a verb or an adjective, applies to more than one noun, blending together grammatically and logically different ideas.
Pun - is a play on words in which a humorous effect is produced by using a word that suggests two or more meanings or by exploiting similar sounding words having different meanings.
Decomposition of a set-phrase – SD in which direct and figurative meanings of a word within the set-phrase are realized at the same time.
Semantically false chains – is a variation of zeugma; the last member of the chain that falls out of the semantic group and producing humorous effect.
Nonsense of non-sequence - SD which include the statements, sayings and conclusions that do not follow the fundamental principles of logic and reason.
3. Lexical Stylistic Devices
Epithet – SD, which expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary. Basic feature of epithet – emotiveness and subjectivity (fixed, affective, figurative).
Oxymoron – SD which combines in one phrase two words whose meanings are opposite and incompatible.
Antonomasia – lexical SD, in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa.
Hyperbole – SD in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration.
Understatement – SD based on a peculiar use of negative constructions in the positive meaning.
Simile – is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes.
Periphrasis – SD which consists of using more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word.
Euphemism – word or phrase, used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a mare acceptable one.
Allusion – indirect reference to a historical, literary, mythological or biblical fact.
4. Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary.
The biggest layer of the English word-stock is made up of neutral words, possessing no stylistic connotation and suitable for any communicative situations. This group doesn’t have a special stylistic coloring.
Literary words serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, poetic messages (common literary, terms, poetic words, archaic words, barbarisms and foreign words, nonce-words).
Colloquial words are employed in non-official everyday communication (common colloquial words, slang, jargonisms, professional words, vulgar words, colloquial coinages).
Special literary vocabulary:
1) terms – words, denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science and technique (indicate the technical peculiarities, create a special atmosphere);
2) poetic and highly literary words – mostly archaic or very rare, used to produce an elevated effect;
3) archaic words:
- obsolescent words – the word becomes rarely used;
- obsolete words – have already gone completely;
- archaic words – are no longer recognizable in modern English;
4) barbarisms – belong to EV, aren’t made conspicuous in the text, have synonyms; foreignisms – don’t belong to EV, have no synonyms (express some exact meaning);
5) literary coinages:
- neologisms – new word or a new meaning for an established word
- nonce-words – words, coined to suite particular situation.
Special colloquial vocabulary:
1) slang – words or expressions that are very informal and are not considerate suitable for more formal situation (highly emotive and expressive);
2) jargonisms – group of words whose aim is to preserve secrecy on or another social group;
3) professionalisms – words used in a profession or calling by people connected by common interests;
4) dialectal words – words, which use is generally confined to a definite locality;
5) vulgarisms – obscene words, the use of which is banned in any form as being indecent;
6) colloquial coinages – spontaneous and elusive words, which can be unfixed in dictionaries.
5. Syntactical expressive means and SD.
A sentence can be of any length, as there are no limits. One-word sentences possess a very strong emphatic impact. If a sentence opens with the main clause, this sentence is called «loose». Similar structuring of the beginning and end of sentence produces balanced sentences known for stressing the logic and reasoning the content.
Punctuation is much poorer than intonation and with the help of dots, dashes, commas and other points we can specify the meaning of the written sentence, which in oral speech would be conveyed by the intonation.
Rhetorical questions don’t demand any information and are used to call the attention of listeners.
One of the most prominent places among the SDs dealing with arrangement of members belongs to repetition – recurrence of the same word or phrase:
- anaphora – repeating of the beginnings (A…, A…, A…)
- epiphora – repeating of the ends (…A, …A, …A)
- framing – the beginning is repeated in the end (A…A)
- catch repetition – the end of one sentence is repeated in the beginning of another (…A, A…)
- chain repetition – presents several catch repetitions (…A, A…B, B…C)
- successive repetition – repeated unit occurs in various positions (…A, A, A…)
Repetition adds rhyme and balance to the utterance.
Parallel constructions always include some type of several lexical repetitions; produce very strong effect.
Chiasmus – reversed parallelism; if the first sentence has a direct word order, the second will have it inverted.
6. Syntactical expressive means and SD.
Inversion – SD, in which the direct word order is changed completely.
Suspense – deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence.
Detachment – SD, which is based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation.
Ellipsis – deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence.
One-member sentence – SD, which is used mostly in descriptions, where they produce effect of a detailed but laconic image.
Apokoinu constructions – omission of the pronominal, creating the connection between main and subordinate clauses.
Break – SD, which promotes the incompleteness of sentence structure.
Types of connection:
Polysyndeton – repeated use of conjunctions.
Asyndeton – deliberate omission of conjunctions.
Attachment – the second part of the utterance is separated from the first by a full stop.
7. Phonetic stylistic devices.
Onomatopoeia – is a combination of a speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature, by things, by people and by animals.
Alliteration – SD, which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this SD lies in repetition of similar sounds.
Rhyme – repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words. Words are generally placed ay a regular distance from each other. Functions:
- adds a musical quality
- makes the poem easier to remember
Types of rhyme:
- the full rhyme (the same vowels and following consonants)
- incomplete rhyme (syllables in words are identical)
- broken rhyme (in consonants)
Models of rhyme:
1) couplets (AA)
2) triple rhyme (AAA)
3) cross rhyme (ABAB)
4) ring rhyme (ABBA)
Rhythm – combination of the ideal metrical scheme and the variations of it. Most common:
- iamb (one unstressed syllable followed by one un. syl.)
- trochee (one stressed syllable followed by one un.)
- anapest (two un. syl. followed by one st.)
- dactyl (one st. syl. followed by two un. syl.)
Graphon – intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word used to reflect its authentic pronunciation. Adds information about the speaker’s origin, social and education backgrounds or physical defects. Very popular with advertisers. Adds vividness and memorability.
All changes of type (italics, capitalization), spacing of graphemes (hyphenation, multiplication) refer to graphical means. Italics used to add logical or emotive significance. Intensity of speech is transmitted through the multiplication or capitalization.
8. Stylistic grammar.
9. Belles-lettres style.
The b-l style is a general term for 3 substyles:
- the language of poetry
- emotive prose
- the language of drama
The common features:
Aesthetic-cognitive – get the idea of the text and get pleasure while reading
Certain linguistic features of belles-letters style:
Imagery, the use of words in contextual meaning, a vocabulary, which will reflect the author attitude, individual selection of vocabulary and syntax.
Language of poetry
Based mostly on rhythmic and phonetic arrangements. Rhythm and rhyme are studied under the term of prosody.
Allows the use of elements from other styles as well. Not so rich, as language of poetry. Two forms – dialogue and monologue. Fragmentation of syntactical models and gap-sentences link are introduced in modern emotive prose.
The language of drama
The language of plays is entirely dialogue, it is always stylized and characters utterances are generally much longer.
The Style of Official Documents
1) Language of business letters; 2) Language of legal documents; 3) Language of diplomacy; 4) Language of military documents; The aim: 1. to reach agreement between two contracting parties; 2. to state the conditions binding two parties in an understanding. Each of substyles of official documents makes use of special terms. Legal documents: military documents, diplomatic documents. The documents use set expressions inherited from early Victorian period. This vocabulary is conservative. Legal documents contain a large proportion of formal and archaic words used in their dictionary meaning. In diplomatic and legal documents many words have Latin and French origin. There are a lot of abbreviations and conventional symbols. The most noticeable feature of grammar is the compositional pattern. Every document has its own stereotyped form. The form itself is informative and tells you with what kind of letter we deal with. Business letters contain: heading, addressing, salutation, the opening, the body, the closing, complimentary clause, the signature. Syntactical features of business letters are - the predominance of extended simple and complex sentences, wide use of participial constructions, homogeneous members. Morphological peculiarities are passive constructions, they make the letters impersonal. There is a tendency to avoid pronoun reference. Its typical feature is to frame equally important factors and to divide them by members in order to avoid ambiguity of the wrong interpretation.
10. Publicistic style. Scientific prose style.
Publicistic style is a perfect example of historical changeability of stylistic differentiation of discourses. In Greece it was practiced in oral form which was named P. in accordance with the name of its corresponding genre. PS is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader & shaping his views in accordance with the argumentation of the author. Substyles: The oratory essays, journalistic articles, radio and TV commentary.
Oratory. It makes use of a great number of expressive means to arouse and keep the public's interest: repetition, gradation, antithesis, rhetorical questions, emotive words, elements of colloquial speech.
Radio and TV commentary is less impersonal and more expressive and emotional.
The essay is very subjective and the most colloquial of the all substyles of the publicistic style. It makes use of expressive means and tropes.
The journalistic articles are impersonal.
Scientific Prose Style
The style of scientific prose has 3 subdivisions:1) the style of humanitarian sciences; 2) the style of "exact" sciences; 3) the style of popular scientific prose. Its function is to work out and ground theoretically objective knowledge about reality. The aim of communication is to create new concepts, disclose the international laws of existence. The peculiarities are: objectiveness; logical coherence, impersonality, unemotional character, exactness. The scientific prose style consists mostly of ordinary words which tend to be used in their primary logical meaning. Emotiveness depends on the subject of investigation but mostly scientific prose style is unemotional. Some features of the style in the text are: - use of quotations and references; - use of foot-notes helps to preserve the logical coherence of ideas. Scientific popular style has the following peculiarities: emotive words, elements of colloquial style.
11. Newspaper style
Newspaper style includes informative materials: news in brief, headlines, ads, additional articles. To attract the reader’s attention special means are used, for example: specific headlines, space ordering, a large proportion of dates, personal names of countries, institutions, individuals. To achieve an effect of objectivity in rendering some fact or event most part of information is published anonymously, without the name of newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position of the paper becomes clear from the choice not only of subj. matter but also of words denoting international or domestic issues. Substyles. To understand the language peculiarities of English newspaper style it will be sufficient to analyze the following basic newspaper features:1) brief news items;2) advertisements and announcements;3) headlines; Brief items: its function is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. The vocabulary used is neutral and common literary. Specific features are: a) special political and economic terms; b) non-term political vocabulary; c) newspaper clichés; d) abbreviations; e) neologisms.
13. Decoding stylistic.
This brunch of stylistic is the most recent trend in S research.
DS makes an attempt to regard the aesthetic value of a text based of specific textual elements in delivering the author’s message.
This method isn’t used separately, but only as a part of whole text. Decoding S is the same as reader’s S.
DS laid down a few principle methods:
1) convergence (combination of SD promoting the same idea, emotion.
2) coupling – based on the affinity of elements that occupy similar positions throughout the text
3) semantic fields – method of DS, which identifies lexical elements in text that provide its thematic and compositional cohesion.
4) semi-marked structures – wrong use of grammar rules for achieving special effects